Scientific Studies of Acidic Ionized Water

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The following is a selection of articles on scientific studies done using acidic water to determine its use and efficacy

Comparison of electrolyzed oxidizing water with various antimicrobial interventions to reduce Salmonella species on poultry.

Poultry Science 2002 Oct;81(10):1598-605.
Fabrizio KA, Sharma RR, Demirci A, Cutter CN. Department of Food Science, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park 16802, USA.

Foodborne pathogens in cell suspensions or attached to surfaces can be reduced by electrolyzed oxidizing (EO) water; however, the use of EO water against pathogens associated with poultry has not been explored. In this study, acidic EO water [EO-A; pH 2.6, chlorine (CL) 20 to 50 ppm, and oxidation-reduction potential (ORP) of 1,150 mV], basic EO water (EO-B; pH 11.6, ORP of -795 mV), CL, ozonated water (OZ), acetic acid (AA), or trisodium phosphate (TSP) was applied to broiler carcasses inoculated with Salmonella Typhimurium (ST) and submerged (4 C, 45 min), spray-washed (85 psi, 25 C, 15 s), or subjected to multiple interventions (EO-B spray, immersed in EO-A; AA or TSP spray, immersed in CL). Remaining bacterial populations were determined and compared at Day 0 and 7 of aerobic, refrigerated storage. At Day 0, submersion in TSP and AA reduced ST 1.41 log10, whereas EO-A water reduced ST approximately 0.86 log10. After 7 d of storage, EO-A water, OZ, TSP, and AA reduced ST, with detection only after selective enrichment. Spray-washing treatments with any of the compounds did not reduce ST at Day 0. After 7 d of storage, TSP, AA, and EO-A water reduced ST 2.17, 2.31, and 1.06 log10, respectively. ST was reduced 2.11 log10 immediately following the multiple interventions, 3.81 log10 after 7 d of storage. Although effective against ST, TSP and AA are costly and adversely affect the environment. This study demonstrates that EO water can reduce ST on poultry surfaces following extended refrigerated storage. PMID: 12412930

Treatment of Escherichia coli (O157:H7) inoculated alfalfa seeds and sprouts with electrolyzed oxidizing water.

Int J Food Microbiol. 2003 Sep 15;86(3):231-7.

Department of Agricultural and Biological Engineering, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802, USA.

Electrolyzed oxidizing water is a relatively new concept that has been utilized in agriculture, livestock management, medical sterilization, and food sanitation. Electrolyzed oxidizing (EO) water generated by passing sodium chloride solution through an EO water generator was used to treat alfalfa seeds and sprouts inoculated with a five-strain cocktail of nalidixic acid resistant Escherichia coli O157:H7. EO water had a pH of 2.6, an oxidation-reduction potential of 1150 mV and about 50 ppm free chlorine. The percentage reduction in bacterial load was determined for reaction times of 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, and 64 min. Mechanical agitation was done while treating the seeds at different time intervals to increase the effectiveness of the treatment. Since E. coli O157:H7 was released due to soaking during treatment, the initial counts on seeds and sprouts were determined by soaking the contaminated seeds/sprouts in 0.1% peptone water for a period equivalent to treatment time. The samples were then pummeled in 0.1% peptone water and spread plated on tryptic soy agar with 5 microg/ml of nalidixic acid (TSAN). Results showed that there were reductions between 38.2% and 97.1% (0.22-1.56 log(10) CFU/g) in the bacterial load of treated seeds. The reductions for sprouts were between 91.1% and 99.8% (1.05-2.72 log(10) CFU/g). An increase in treatment time increased the percentage reduction of E. coli O157:H7. However, germination of the treated seeds reduced from 92% to 49% as amperage to make EO water and soaking time increased. EO water did not cause any visible damage to the sprouts. PMID: 12915034

Inactivation of Escherichia coli (O157:H7) and Listeria monocytogenes on plastic kitchen cutting boards by electrolyzed oxidizing water.

Venkitanarayanan KS, Ezeike GO, Hung YC, Doyle MP. Department of Animal Science, University of Connecticut, Storrs 06269, USA.

One milliliter of culture containing a five-strain mixture of Escherichia coli O157:H7 (approximately 10(10) CFU) was inoculated on a 100-cm2 area marked on unscarred cutting boards. Following inoculation, the boards were air-dried under a laminar flow hood for 1 h, immersed in 2 liters of electrolyzed oxidizing water or sterile deionized water at 23 degrees C or 35 degrees C for 10 or 20 min; 45 degrees C for 5 or 10 min; or 55 degrees C for 5 min. After each temperature-time combination, the surviving population of the pathogen on cutting boards and in soaking water was determined. Soaking of inoculated cutting boards in electrolyzed oxidizing water reduced E. coli O157:H7 populations by > or = 5.0 log CFU/100 cm2 on cutting boards. However, immersion of cutting boards in deionized water decreased the pathogen count only by 1.0 to 1.5 log CFU/100 cm2. Treatment of cutting boards inoculated with Listeria monocytogenes in electrolyzed oxidizing water at selected temperature-time combinations (23 degrees C for 20 min, 35 degrees C for 10 min, and 45 degrees C for 10 min) substantially reduced the populations of L. monocytogenes in comparison to the counts recovered from the boards immersed in deionized water. E. coli O157:H7 and L. monocytogenes were not detected in electrolyzed oxidizing water after soaking treatment, whereas the pathogens survived in the deionized water used for soaking the cutting boards. This study revealed that immersion of kitchen cutting boards in electrolyzed oxidizing water could be used as an effective method for inactivating foodborne pathogens on smooth, plastic cutting boards. PMID: 10456736

The bactericidal effects of electrolyzed oxidizing water on bacterial strains involved in hospital infections.

Artif Organs. 2004 Jun;28(6):590-2.

Vorobjeva NV, Vorobjeva LI, Khodjaev EY. Department of Physiology of Microorganisms, Biology Faculty, Moscow State University, Lenin Hills 1/12, Moscow 119992, Russia.

The study is designed to investigate bactericidal actions of electrolyzed oxidizing water on hospital infections. Ten of the most common opportunistic pathogens are used for this study. Cultures are inoculated in 4.5 mL of electrolyzed oxidizing (EO) water or 4.5 mL of sterile deionized water (control), and incubated for 0, 0.5, and 5 min at room temperature. At the exposure time of 30 s the EO water completely inactivates all of the bacterial strains, with the exception of vegetative cells and spores of bacilli which need 5 min to be killed. The results indicate that electrolyzed oxidizing water may be a useful disinfectant for hospital infections, but its clinical application has still to be evaluated. PMID: 15153153

Effect of electrolyzed oxidizing water and hydrocolloid occlusive dressings on excised burn-wounds in rats.

Chin J Traumatol. 2003 Aug 1;6(4):234-7.

Xin H, Zheng YJ, Hajime N, Han ZG. Department of Thoracic Surgery, China-Japan Union Hospital, Jilin University, Jilin 130031, China.

OBJECTIVE: To study the efficacy of electrolyzed oxidizing water (EOW) and hydrocolloid occlusive dressings in the acceleration of epithelialization in excised burn-wounds in rats. METHODS: Each of the anesthetized Sprague-Dawley rats (n=28) was subjected to a third-degree burn that covered approximately 10% of the total body surface area. Rats were assigned into four groups: Group I (no irrigation), Group II (irrigation with physiologic saline), Group III (irrigation with EOW) and Group IV (hydrocolloid occlusive dressing after EOW irrigation). Wounds were observed macroscopically until complete epithelialization was present, then the epithelialized wounds were examined microscopically. RESULTS: Healing of the burn wounds was the fastest in Group IV treated with hydrocolloid occlusive dressing together with EOW. Although extensive regenerative epidermis was seen in each Group, the proliferations of lymphocytes and macrophages associated with dense collagen deposition were more extensive in Group II, III and IV than in Group I. These findings were particularly evident in Group III and IV. CONCLUSIONS: Wound Healing may be accelerated by applying a hydrocolloid occlusive dressing on burn surfaces after they are cleaned with EOW. PMID: 12857518

Effect of electrolyzed water on wound healing

Artif Organs. 2000 Dec;24(12):984-7.

Yahagi N, Kono M, Kitahara M, Ohmura A, Sumita O, Hashimoto T, Hori K, Ning-Juan C, Woodson P, Kubota S, Murakami A, Takamoto S. Department of Anesthesiology, Teikyo University Mizonokuchi Hospital, Tokyo, Japan.

Electrolyzed water accelerated the healing of full-thickness cutaneous wounds in rats, but only anode chamber water (acid pH or neutralized) was effective. Hypochlorous acid (HOCl), also produced by electrolysis, was ineffective, suggesting that these types of electrolyzed water enhance wound healing by a mechanism unrelated to the well-known antibacterial action of HOCl. One possibility is that reactive oxygen species, shown to be electron spin resonance spectra present in anode chamber water, might trigger early wound healing through fibroblast migration and proliferation. PMID: 11121980

Decomposition of ethylene, a flower-senescence hormone, with electrolyzed anode water.

Biosci Biotechnol Biochem.
2003 Apr;67(4):790-6.

Harada K, Yasui K. Department of Research and Development, Hokkaido Electric Power Co., Inc., 2-1 Tsuishikari, Ebetsu, Hokkaido 067-0033, Japan.

Electrolyzed anode water (EAW) markedly extended the vase life of cut carnation flowers. Therefore, a flower-senescence hormone involving ethylene decomposition by EAW with potassium chloride as an electrolyte was investigated. Ethylene was added externally to EAW, and the reaction between ethylen and the available chlorine in EAW was examined. EAW had a low pH value (2.5), a high concentration of dissolved oxygen, and extremely high redox potential (19.2 mg/l and 1323 mV, respectively) when available chlorine was at a concentration of about 620 microns. The addition of ethylene to EAW led to ethylene decomposition, and an equimolar amount of ethylene chlorohydrine with available chlorine was produced. The ethylene chlorohydrine production was greatly affected by the pH value (pH 2.5, 5.0 and 10.0 were tested), and was faster in an acidic solution. Ethylene chlorohydrine was not produced after ethylene had been added to EAW at pH 2.6 when available chlorine was absent, but was produced after potassium hypochlorite had been added to such EAW. The effect of the pH value of EAW on the vase life of cut carnations was compatible with the decomposition rate of ethylene in EAW of the same pH value. These results suggest that the effect of EAW on the vase life of cut carnations was due to the decomposition of ethylene to ethylene chlorohydrine by chlorine from chlorine compounds. PMID: 12784619